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I-800-Volt Electrical System—Ukhiye Wokunciphisa Isikhathi Sokushaja Sezimoto Ezintsha Zamandla

Ngo-2021, ukuthengiswa kwe-EV emhlabeni jikelele kuzobalelwa ku-9% wesamba sokuthengiswa kwezimoto zabagibeli.

Ukuze kukhuliswe lelo nani, ngaphezu kokutshala imali eningi ezindaweni ezintsha zebhizinisi ukuze kusheshiswe ukuthuthukiswa, ukukhiqizwa nokukhuthazwa kokufakwa kukagesi, abakhiqizi bezimoto nabahlinzeki bempahla nabo bahlanyisa ubuchopho babo ukuze balungiselele isizukulwane esilandelayo sezingxenye zezimoto.

Izibonelo zifaka amabhethri e-solid-state, ama-axial-flow motors, namasistimu kagesi angu-800-volt athembisa ukunciphisa izikhathi zokushaja phakathi, ukunciphisa kakhulu usayizi webhethri nezindleko, futhi athuthukise ukusebenza kahle kwe-drivetrain.

Kuze kube manje, zimbalwa izimoto ezintsha ezisebenzise uhlelo lwe-800-volt esikhundleni se-400 evamile.

Amamodeli anezinhlelo ezingu-800-volt asevele emakethe yilawa: i-Porsche Taycan, i-Audi E-tron GT, i-Hyundai Ioniq 5 ne-Kia EV6.I-Lucid Air limousine isebenzisa i-architecture engu-900-volt, nakuba ochwepheshe bemboni bakholelwa ukuthi ngokobuchwepheshe iwuhlelo lwama-volt angu-800.

Ngokombono wabahlinzeki bengxenye ye-EV, ukwakhiwa kwebhethri engu-800-volt kuzoba ubuchwepheshe obuhamba phambili ekupheleni kweminyaka yowezi-2020, ikakhulukazi njengoba kuvela amapulatifomu asebenza ngogesi angu-800-volt, njenge-E-GMP yakwaHyundai kanye ne-PPE ye-EV. iVolkswagen Group.

Iplathifomu kagesi eyimojula ye-Hyundai Motor ye-E-GMP ihlinzekwa yi-Vitesco Technologies, inkampani ye-powertrain ephuma ku-Continental AG, ukuze ihlinzeke ngama-inverters angu-800-volt;I-Volkswagen Group PPE iyisakhiwo sebhethri engu-800-volt ethuthukiswe ngokuhlanganyela yi-Audi ne-Porsche.Ipulatifomu yemoto kagesi ye-Modular.

"Ngo-2025, amamodeli anezinhlelo ze-800-volt azovame kakhulu," kusho u-Dirk Kesselgruber, umongameli we-GKN's electric drivetrain division, inkampani yokuthuthukisa ubuchwepheshe.I-GKN iphinde ibe ngomunye wabahlinzeki be-Tier 1 abaningana abasebenzisa ubuchwepheshe, ihlinzeka ngezinto ezifana nama-axle kagesi angu-800-volt, ngeso elibheke ekukhiqizeni ngobuningi ngo-2025.

Utshele i-Automotive News Europe, "Sicabanga ukuthi uhlelo lwe-800-volt luzosetshenziswa kakhulu. I-Hyundai iphinde yafakazela ukuthi ingakwazi ukuncintisana ngokulinganayo ngentengo."

E-United States, i-Hyundai IQNIQ 5 iqala ku-$43,650, esekelwe ngaphezu kwenani elijwayelekile lama-$60,054 lezimoto zikagesi ngoFebhuwari 2022, futhi ingamukelwa abathengi abaningi.

"Ama-800 volts ayisinyathelo esilandelayo esiphusile ekuthuthukisweni kwezimoto zikagesi ezihlanzekile," kusho u-Alexander Reich, inhloko ye-innovative power electronics e-Vitesco, engxoxweni.

Ngaphezu kokuhlinzeka ngama-inverter angu-800-volt eplathifomu kagesi eyimojula yakwaHyundai ye-E-GMP, i-Vitesco ithole ezinye izinkontileka ezinkulu, okuhlanganisa nezishintshashintshayo ze-automaker enkulu yaseNyakatho Melika kanye nama-EV amabili ahamba phambili e-China nase-Japan.Umphakeli uhlinzeka ngenjini.

Ingxenye yezinhlelo zikagesi ezingama-800-volt ikhula ngokushesha kunalokho obekulindelwe eminyakeni embalwa edlule, futhi amakhasimende akhula ngamandla, kusho uHarry Husted, oyisikhulu sezobuchwepheshe enkampanini yezimoto zase-US uBorgWarner, nge-imeyili.isithakazelo.Umphakeli uphinde wawina ama-oda athile, okuhlanganisa nemojula edidiyelwe yokushayela yomkhiqizo waseShayina wokunethezeka.

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1. Kungani i-800 volts "isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo"?

 

Yiziphi izinto ezivelele zesistimu engu-800-volt uma iqhathaniswa nesistimu ekhona yama-volt angu-400?

Okokuqala, bangaletha amandla afanayo ngesikhathi esiphansi.Nyusa isikhathi sokushaja ngo-50% ngosayizi webhethri ofanayo.

Ngenxa yalokho, ibhethri, ingxenye ebiza kakhulu emotweni kagesi, ingenziwa ibe yincane, ikhulise ukusebenza kahle ngenkathi inciphisa isisindo sonke.

U-Otmar Scharrer, iphini likamongameli we-electrified powertrain technology kwa-ZF, uthe: "Izindleko zezimoto zikagesi azikakafiki ezingeni elifanayo nezimoto zikaphethiloli, futhi ibhethri elincane lingaba isisombululo esihle. Futhi, ukuba nebhethri elikhulu kakhulu imodeli ehlangene evamile njenge-Ioniq 5 ayenzi mqondo ngokwayo.”

“Ngokuphinda kabili amandla kagesi kanye namandla afanayo, imoto ingathola amandla aphindwe kabili,” kusho uReich."Uma isikhathi sokushaja sishesha ngokwanele, imoto kagesi ingase ingadingi ukuchitha isikhathi igijima ibanga elingamakhilomitha angu-1,000."

Okwesibili, ngenxa yokuthi ama-voltage aphezulu anikeza amandla afanayo namanje kancane, izintambo nezintambo nazo zingenziwa zibe zincane futhi zibe lula, kunciphise ukusetshenziswa kwethusi elibizayo nelisindayo.

Amandla alahlekile nawo azoncishiswa ngokufanele, okuholela ekukhuthazeleni okungcono nokusebenza okuthuthukisiwe kwemoto.Futhi alukho uhlelo oluyinkimbinkimbi lokuphatha okushisayo oludingekayo ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi ibhethri lisebenza ezingeni lokushisa eliphezulu.

Okokugcina, uma kubhangqwe nobuchwepheshe be-silicon carbide microchip abasafufusa, uhlelo lwe-800-volt lungakhuphula ukusebenza kahle kwe-powertrain ngamaphesenti angu-5.Le chip ilahlekelwa amandla amancane lapho ishintsha futhi iphumelela kakhulu ekubhulekini okuvuselelayo.

Ngenxa yokuthi ama-silicon carbide chips amasha asebenzisa i-silicon engahlanzekile, izindleko zingaba phansi futhi ama-chips amaningi anganikezwa embonini yezimoto, kusho abahlinzeki.Ngenxa yokuthi ezinye izimboni zivamise ukusebenzisa wonke ama-silicon chips, ziqhudelana nabakhiqizi bezimoto kulayini wokukhiqiza we-semiconductor.

"Ekuphetheni, ukuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo ze-800-volt kubalulekile," kuphetha uKessel Gruber we-GKN.

 

2. Isakhiwo sesiteshi sokushaja esingu-800-volt

 

Nanku omunye umbuzo: Iziteshi eziningi zokushaja ezikhona zisekelwe ohlelweni lwe-400-volt, ingabe ikhona ngempela inzuzo ngezimoto ezisebenzisa i-800-volt system?

Impendulo enikezwe ochwepheshe bemboni ithi: yebo.Nakuba imoto idinga ingqalasizinda yokushaja esekelwe ku-800-volt.

“Iningi lengqalasizinda ekhona eshaja ngokushesha i-DC eyezimoto ezingu-400 volt,” kusho uHursted."Ukuze sithole ukushaja okusheshayo okungu-800-volt, sidinga isizukulwane sakamuva samashaja anamandla kagesi aphezulu, amandla aphezulu e-DC."

Lokho akuyona inkinga yokushaja ekhaya, kodwa kuze kube manje amanethiwekhi okushaja omphakathi ashesha kakhulu e-US anomkhawulo.U-Reich ucabanga ukuthi inkinga inzima nakakhulu eziteshini zokushaja zomgwaqo onguthelawayeka.

E-Europe, nokho, amanethiwekhi okushaja ama-800-volt ayanda, futhi i-Ionity inenani lama-800-volt, 350-kilowatt onguthelawayeka wezindawo zokushaja kulo lonke elaseYurophu.

I-Ionity EU iphrojekthi yobambiswano enama-automaker amaningi yenethiwekhi yeziteshi zokushaja ezinamandla aphezulu zezimoto zikagesi, eyasungulwa yi-BMW Group, i-Daimler AG, i-Ford Motor kanye ne-Volkswagen.Ngo-2020, abakwaHyundai Motor bajoyine umnikazi wamasheya wesihlanu ngobukhulu.

"Ishaja engu-800-volt, 350-kilowatt isho isikhathi sokushaja esingamakhilomitha angu-100 imizuzu engu-5-7," kusho uSchaller we-ZF."Inkomishi yekhofi leyo."

"Lobu ubuchwepheshe obuphazamisayo ngempela. Kuzosiza futhi imboni yezimoto yenze abantu abaningi bamukele izimoto ezisebenza ngogesi."

Ngokombiko wakamuva ovela kwa-Porsche, kuthatha cishe imizuzu engu-80 ukwengeza ibanga elingamakhilomitha angu-250 esiteshini esivamile samandla angu-50kW, 400V;imizuzu engu-40 uma inamandla angu-100kW;uma ukupholisa ipulaki yokushaja (izindleko , isisindo kanye yinkimbinkimbi), okungase kunciphise isikhathi kumaminithi angu-30.

“Ngakho-ke, emzamweni wokuthola ukushaja ngesivinini esiphezulu, ukushintshela kuma-voltage aphezulu akunakugwenywa,” kuphetha lo mbiko.I-Porsche ikholelwa ukuthi nge-voltage yokushaja engu-800-volt, isikhathi sizokwehla sibe cishe imizuzu engu-15.

Ukushaja kabusha kulula futhi kuyashesha njengokugcwalisa amafutha - kunethuba elihle lokuthi kuzokwenzeka.

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3. Amavulandlela ezimbonini ezisadla ngoludala

 

Uma ubuchwepheshe be-800-volt buhle kakhulu, kufanelekile ukubuza ukuthi kungani, ngaphandle kwamamodeli ashiwo ngenhla, cishe zonke izimoto zikagesi zisasekelwe ezinhlelweni ze-400-volt, ngisho nabaholi bezimakethe uTesla noVolkswagen.?

USchaller nabanye ochwepheshe bathi izizathu "zokuba lula" kanye "nokuba imboni kuqala."

Indlu evamile isebenzisa amavolthi angu-380 wezigaba ezintathu ze-AC (izinga likagesi empeleni liwububanzi, akulona inani eligxilile), ngakho lapho abakhiqizi bezimoto beqala ukukhipha ama-hybrid plug-in nezimoto zikagesi ezimsulwa, ingqalasizinda yokushaja yayisivele ikhona .Futhi igagasi lokuqala lezimoto zikagesi lakhiwe phezu kwezingxenye ezenzelwe ama-plug-in hybrids, ayesekelwe kumasistimu angu-400-volt.

“Uma wonke umuntu eku-400 volts, kusho ukuthi lelo izinga likagesi elitholakala engqalasizinda yonke indawo,” kusho uSchaller."Yiyona elula kunazo zonke, itholakala ngokushesha. Ngakho-ke abantu abacabangi kakhulu. Banqume ngokushesha."

U-Kessel Gruber uncoma i-Porsche njengephayona lesistimu ye-800-volt ngoba igxile kakhulu ekusebenzeni kunokusebenza.

I-Porsche inesibindi sokuphinda ihlole lokho imboni ekwenzile kusukela esikhathini esidlule.Uyazibuza: "Ingabe lesi yisixazululo esingcono kakhulu?""Singakwazi ukuyiklama kusukela ekuqaleni?"Lobo ubuhle bokuba umenzi wezimoto osebenza kahle kakhulu.

Ochwepheshe bemboni bavumile ukuthi kuseyisikhathi nje ngaphambi kokuthi ama-EV amaningi angu-800-volt angene emakethe.

Azikho izinselele zobuchwepheshe eziningi, kodwa izingxenye zidinga ukuthuthukiswa nokuqinisekiswa;izindleko zingase zibe yinkinga, kodwa ngesilinganiso, amaseli amancane kanye nethusi elincane, izindleko eziphansi zizofika maduze.

IVolvo, Polestar, Stellantis neGeneral Motors sebekushilo ukuthi izinhlobo ezizayo zizosebenzisa ubuchwepheshe.

I-Volkswagen Group ihlela ukwethula uchungechunge lwezimoto endaweni yayo engu-800-volt PPE, okuhlanganisa ne-Macan entsha kanye nenqola yesiteshi esekelwe kumqondo omusha we-A6 Avant E-tron.

Idlanzana labakhiqizi bezimoto baseShayina baphinde bamemezela ukuthuthela ekwakhiweni kwe-800-volt, okuhlanganisa i-Xpeng Motors, i-NIO, i-Li Auto, i-BYD ne-Geely-owned Lotus.

"Nge-Taycan ne-E-tron GT, unemoto ehamba phambili ekilasini. I-Ioniq 5 iwubufakazi bokuthi imoto yomndeni ethengekayo ingenzeka," kuphetha uKessel Gruber."Uma lezi zimoto ezimbalwa zingakwenza, yonke imoto ingakwenza."


Isikhathi sokuthumela: Apr-19-2022